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Linda M. Perry
lmperry@ufl.edu

 

 

Communication Campaign Strategies > Lectures > Goals, Objectives & Strategies

    Goals, Objectives & Strategies

    • ROSTE
      • Research
      • Objectives
      • Strategies
      • Tactics
      • Evaluation

    • MBO
      • Management by Objectives
        • a process of defining objectives so that managment and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they need to do to achieve them.

        Peter Drucker, The Practice of Managment, 1954

    • GOST
      • Goals
      • Objectives
      • Strategies
      • Tactics

    • Mission & Goals
    • Missions

      UF Mission (revised 2014): The University of Florida is a comprehensive learning institution built on a land-grant foundation. We are The Gator Nation, a diverse community dedicated to excellence in education and research and haping a better future for Florida, the nation and the world.

      Our mission is to enable our students to lead and influence the next generation and beyond for economic, cultural and societal benefit.

      ~ as of February 2, 2015

      • AEC Mission: The mission of the AEC Department is to serve society by advancing individuals and organizations in agriculture and natural resources through research and evidence-based practice in education, communication, and leadership.
        Adopted Oct. 17, 2013


      • 48 UF Goals
    • Objectives & Strategies
      • Objectives
        • Specific steps to reach goals
        • May be modified if
          • Appropriate strategies cannot be found
          • Intervening events compel change
            • Monitor & track issues
            • May require further research
        • Must be ethical, in public interest
      • Strategies
        • Based on research, publics and media
        • May be modified if tactics to support them are not available
      • Tactics
        • The communication, events undertaken to support the strategy
          • Supporting materials
          • Special events, including contests

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      • Evaluation
        • Strategies must be evaluated on whether they can achieve the objectives
        • Campaign must be evaluated to determine whether objectives were met.

      • Example, from mission to evaluation
        • Mission > Goals > Objectives > Strategies > Tactics > Evaluation

      • Selecting campaign objectives
        • Objectives based on research
          • Analysis of organization’s goals, problems, resources and publics
          • Knowledge of appropriate media resources, laws and culture.
        • Guide strategic planning and tactical decisions
        • Provide criteria for evaluation

      • SMART objectives
        • "SMART objectives" make objectives easier to understand, to do, and then be reassured that they have been done.

      George T. Doran,
      “There’s a smart way to write management’s goals and objectives.”
       Management Review (AMA FORUM) 70(11): 35-36, November 1981 

      • Objectives

        • Objectives should be SMART
          • Specific
            • Specific audience, results
          • Measurable
            • Must contain NUMBERS that are practical to measure
          • Appropriate, achievable
            • Legal, ethical, related to goals of organization
          • Realistic
            • Don’t  aim too low or too high, given available resources
          • Time-related
            • When results can be achieved

        • Specific objectives
          • Specifies a public, or target audience
            • Values & media habits
            • Active, passive, or latent
          • Specifies a change in that public
            • Behavior
            • Attitude or inoculation — need baseline measure
            • Knowledge — need baseline measure
            • Opinions and beliefs — need baseline measure

          • NOT: To get the word out
          • NOT: To build loyalty
          • NOT: To inform
          • NOT: To increase awareness
          • NOT: To build organization’s brand
          • NOT: To enhance reputation
            • These may be part of goals, but they’re not objectives
          • NOT: To increase awareness of the importance of using native plants.
            • Specific: To increase membership in FANN by 25 wholesale nursery owners by May 1.
            • Action (join), audience, number, date
          • NOT: To increase awareness of the need for tagging cattle.
            • Specific: To increase compliance of tagging cattle by 50 ranchers by May 1.
            • Action (tag), audience, number, date
        • Measurable & results-oriented objectives
          • NOT:
            • To increase brand awareness
            • To generate publicity or to send out 5 press releases (procedural)
            • To increase awareness by 10%.
            • To gain support for our cause.
            • To inform.
          • Must have outcome numbers that can be measured.
            • Increase 2015 donations from UF students by 10%.
            • Obtain $2,500 in donations from UF students by Dec. 31.
            • Obtain pledges by Dec. 11 from 20% of students to visit a local spring.
            • Obtain pledges by Dec. 11 from 9,000 students to conserve water.
            • Pledge objectives should be followed by another behavioral objective.
              • Attain a 20% increase in park attendance by March 31.
              • Realize a 5% decline in water consumption by March 31.

        • Reasonable objectives
            • NOT: To convince 25,000 UF students to donate $100 each by next week. (too high)
            • NOT: To convince 100 UF students to donate $1 each by next year. (too low)
            • Reasonable: To convince 500 UF students to donate $10 each by May 1.

        • Evaluation
          • Write objectives so evaluation is built in
            • Raise $50,000 from UF students by Dec. 31. (behavioral objective)
          • Measuring knowledge or attitude change
            • Difficult & costly: Test or survey; pre-test post-test
            • Still does not result in desired action.

    • Publics
      • Primary target publics
      • Secondary publics
        • Multi-step flow of communication

    • Strategies
      • Strategic communication: designed to achieve organizational objectives.
      • Conceptual: Describe messages, themes or guidelines for the campaign
        • Must be relevant to objectives
        • Assess strategy’s probability of success
        • Identify whether there are available tactics to implement the strategy.

      • Based on an understanding of the relationship between
        • The message or theme and
        • The beliefs and behaviors of the target public
      • Evaluate strategy as to whether a message or theme will motivate the target public.
        • Message testing

      • Information in messages must meet criteria for the target public. It should
        • Appeal to some value.
        • Be believable.
        • Not conflict with other beliefs or values.
        • Come from a trustworthy source.

      • Based on understanding of what motivates the target public.
        • Based on theory that explains human beliefs, values, habits and/or behavior.
        • Appropriate in terms of theory of communication or persuasion.
    • Communication theory: public opinion
      • Distribution of individual opinions
      • Bernard Hennessey—Complex of preferences expressed by a significant number of persons on an issue of importance.
      • Campaign must change public opinion sufficiently to motivate change in behavior among target audience.

      • Modern Public Opinion
        • A process rather than a state of collected views.
          • Ideas are expressed, adjusted
          • We take “snapshots” of public opinion at a point in time.
            • Direction: Positive-Neutral-Negative; Pro-Con
            • Intensity: How strongly people feel
            • Stability: More than one measure over time
            • Informational support: Knowledge supporting opinion
            • Social support: Perceptions of shared opinion

      • Attitudes
        • A disposition or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, situation).
          • Encompass or closely related to our opinions and beliefs.
          • Often relate in some way to interaction with others
            http://tip.psychology.org

        • Sources:
          • Primary factor:
            • experience
          • Secondary factors:
            • family (ages 3-13: 7)
            • school
            • culture, class and status
            • religion
            • race

        • When attitudes predict behavior
          • 1. If specific to the behavior
            • For example, specific attitudes toward specific conservation-related practices
          • 2. Self-awareness
            • from experience or inner-direction:
              • think about our attitudes (reminded), or
              • acquired in a way that make them strong
                • from experience, self-interest.
          • 3. If other influences minimized.

        • When behavior determines attitude
          • In novel situations.
            • Choice:
              • Behavior not internalized if no choice.

        • B —> A
          • Foot-in-the-door phenomena
            • Escalating commitments
            • Spiraling action and attitude:
              • Momentum of compliance.
              • Commitment —> obligation to requester
          • Role Playing
            • Career will affect attitudes and values.
              • We internalize roles, with significant effects on our attitudes and personalities.
            • Use
              • 1. make a speech or write a paper
              • 2. argue against belief, position
              • 3. dissonance and attribution

        • Social Learning Theory
          • Albert Bandura, psychology professor.
          • Key components:
            • modeling (observational learning) and
            • social reinforcement (feedback).
          • Involves interaction between environment and thought.
          • Fundamental assumptions
            • 1. Majority of behaviors are learned
            • 2. Observing behavior is an effective way to initiate behavior change.
            • 3. Learning occurs when a person knows what to do and produces the desired outcome.
            • 4. Behavior is facilitated through reinforcement
              • a. Direct
              • b. Vicarious (modeling)
              • c. Self-managed
            • 5. People expect (expectancy learning) events to occur in given situations

        • Basic goals of persuasion
          • Reinforce or conserve positive opinions (effect of most campaigns).
          • Crystallize unformed or uncommitted (fluid) opinions.
          • Change or neutralize opinions (rare).

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      Communication Model


      • Internet & social media
        • Mass communication
        • Point-to-point communication

      • Source Credibility
        • 1. Trustworthy
        • 2. Expert
        • 3. Dynamic
        • 4. Similar (homophily)
        • 5. Power
        • 6. Idealistic (intentions)
        • 7. Good will (intentions)

        Jane Goodall, founder, Roots & Shoots

        • If low credibility
          • (1) hard specific facts
          • (2) first-hand experience.

        • Steps to Persuasion
          • 1. presentation
          • 2. attention
          • 3. comprehension
          • 4. yielding A —> B
          • 5. retention
          • 6. overt behavior
            • Tell specifically what you want them to do.
      • Barriers to Persuasion
        • 1. Selective exposure
          • Requires targeting in appropriate medium
        • 2. Selective attention
        • 3. Selective perception
          • Information is filtered through our belief system
        • 4. Selective retention
          • Information must be delivered clearly and repeated
        • 5. Group norms
        • 6. Multi-step flow
        • 7. Ego-involved attitudes
        • 8. Nature of media in a free society

      • Consistency Theories
        • Assimilation-Contrast Theory
          • People are likely to accept only moderate attitude changes.
            • If the change suggested is too extreme, the contrast with presently held attitudes would cause rejection of the entire message.
          • Therefore, extreme attitudinal change is not sought.
          • We accept messages close to our own viewpoint
            • They may appear closer than they are
            • Latitude of acceptance
          • We reject messages that are too far from our own viewpoint
            • They may appear further away than they are
            • Latitude of rejection
    Issues can be placed on a 9-point spectrum representing the distribution of public opinion on that issue. Research reveals where majority opinion lies. Your position may be quite removed from majority opinion.
    The majority's latitude of acceptance encompasses the viewpoints closest to the majority's position on the issue. A persuasive message within this latitude is likely to be accepted.
    In this example, the majority's latitude of rejection encompasses the extreme positions on the issue, both pro and con. It also encompasses your position. Your message must not fall in the majority's latitude of rejection.
    Between the latitude of acceptance and rejection is the latitude of neutrality.
    A persuasive message might have an effect here, in the majority's latitude of neutrality. Media's most powerful effect is cumulative, so repeated messages here can "inch" majority opinion along closer to your position.
    One public that is not likely to be persuaded is the ego-involved. No matter where their position falls on the spectrum, the ego-involved have an extremely narrow latitude of acceptance, no latitude of neutrality, and a latitude of rejection that encompasses all positions but their own.

      • Rational or emotional appeals
        • 1. Depends on personality, education of target public
        • 2. Emotional appeals work well, but may forget message, source
        • 3. Combination best.

      • Other strategies based on theory
        • Clarity—KISS
          • Overcomes selective perception
        • Connect to self-interest
        • Repetition
          • Most powerful effect of mass media is cumulative
          • Overcomes selective attention, exposure & retention
          • Restate in slightly different ways to overcome distortion

      • Tips
        • Start with problem, build concern, present solution
        • Choice of medium
          • specialized audience—face-to-face
          • preserve message—print
          • overcome selectivity—face to face.
        • Anchoring—link belief to another belief
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